Purpose: To investigate the relationships between tumor absorbed dose (TAD) or normal tissue absorbed dose (NTAD) and clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with yttrium-90 glass microspheres. Methods: TARGET was a retrospective investigation in 13 centers across eight countries. Key inclusion criteria: liver-dominant HCC with or without portal vein thrombosis, < 10 tumors per lobe (at least one ≥ 3 cm), Child–Pugh stage A/B7, BCLC stages A–C, and no prior intra-arterial treatment. Multi-compartment pre-treatment dosimetry was performed retrospectively. Primary endpoint was the relationship between ≥ grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia (such that > 15% of patients experienced an event) without disease progression and NTAD. Secondary endpoints included relationships between (1) objective response (OR) and TAD, (2) overall survival (OS) and TAD, and (3) alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and TAD. Results: No relationship was found between NTAD and ≥ grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia, which occurred in 4.8% of the 209 patients. The mRECIST OR rate over all lesions was 61.7%; for the target (largest) lesion, 70.8%. Responders and non-responders had geometric mean total perfused TADs of 225.5 Gy and 188.3 Gy (p = 0.048). Probability of OR was higher with increasing TAD (p = 0.044). Higher TAD was associated with longer OS (HR per 100 Gy increase = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; p = 0.009). Increased TAD was associated with higher probability of AFP response (p = 0.046 for baseline AFP ≥ 200 ng/mL). Conclusion: Real-world data confirmed a significant association between TAD and OR, TAD and OS, and TAD and AFP response. No association was found between ≥ grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia and NTAD. Trial registration number: NCT03295006.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2022|
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging