AAPM Task Group Report 290: Respiratory motion management for particle therapy

Heng Li, Lei Dong, Christoph Bert, Joe Chang, Stella Flampouri, Kyung Wook Jee, Liyong Lin, Michael Moyers, Shinichiro Mori, Joerg Rottmann, Erik Tryggestad, Sastry Vedam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dose uncertainty induced by respiratory motion remains a major concern for treating thoracic and abdominal lesions using particle beams. This Task Group report reviews the impact of tumor motion and dosimetric considerations in particle radiotherapy, current motion-management techniques, and limitations for different particle-beam delivery modes (i.e., passive scattering, uniform scanning, and pencil-beam scanning). Furthermore, the report provides guidance and risk analysis for quality assurance of the motion-management procedures to ensure consistency and accuracy, and discusses future development and emerging motion-management strategies. This report supplements previously published AAPM report TG76, and considers aspects of motion management that are crucial to the accurate and safe delivery of particle-beam therapy. To that end, this report produces general recommendations for commissioning and facility-specific dosimetric characterization, motion assessment, treatment planning, active and passive motion-management techniques, image guidance and related decision-making, monitoring throughout therapy, and recommendations for vendors. Key among these recommendations are that: (1) facilities should perform thorough planning studies (using retrospective data) and develop standard operating procedures that address all aspects of therapy for any treatment site involving respiratory motion; (2) a risk-based methodology should be adopted for quality management and ongoing process improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e50-e81
JournalMedical physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • motion management
  • particle therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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