Acute mediastinitis, mediastinal granuloma, and chronic fibrosing mediastinitis: A review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Acute mediastinitis is a rare infection that carries high morbidity and mortality. They are complications seen most often with deep sternal wound infections from surgeries with median sternotomies, oropharyngeal and odontogenic infections and esophageal perforations. These conditions should be promptly recognized and treated. Mediastinal granulomas are focal, mass-like lesions commonly resulting from prior granulomatous infections. They are regarded as benign, self-resolving lesions however can cause complications by compression of adjacent mediastinal structures. Chronic fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare, diffuse fibroinflammatory process most often seen with granulomatous infections and carries a worse prognosis than mediastinal granulomas especially when adjacent mediastinal structures are compromised. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of acute mediastinitis, mediastinal granulomas, and chronic fibrosing mediastinitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalSeminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Acute mediastinitis
  • Chronic fibrosing mediastinitis
  • Deep sternal wound infection
  • Descending necrotizing mediastinitis
  • Esophageal perforation
  • Mediastinal granuloma
  • Mediastinitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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