Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and grade group progression in localized prostate cancer: An active surveillance cohort

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Abstract

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) may be beneficial for men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS) because of its anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and chemopreventive properties. This study prospectively investigated adherence to the MD with Gleason score progression and explored associations by diabetes status, statin use, and other factors. Methods: Men with newly diagnosed PCa on an AS protocol (n = 410) completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire, and the MD score was calculated across 9 energy-adjusted food groups. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate multivariable-adjusted associations of the MD score with progression-free survival; progression was defined as an increase in the Gleason grade group (GG) score over a biennial monitoring regimen. Results: In this cohort, 15% of the men were diabetic, 44% of the men used statins, and 76 men progressed (median follow-up, 36 months). After adjustments for clinical factors, higher adherence to the MD was associated with a lower risk of GG progression among all men (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-unit increase in MD score, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.01), non-White men (HR per 1-unit increase in MD score, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.92; P for interaction =.07), and men without diabetes (HR per 1-unit increase in MD score, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96; P for interaction =.03). When joint effects of the MD score and statin use were examined, a similar risk reduction was observed among men with high MD scores who did not use statins in comparison with men with low/moderate MD scores with no statin use. Conclusions: The MD is associated with a lower risk of GG progression in men on AS, and this is consistent with prior reports about the MD and reduced cancer morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)720-728
Number of pages9
JournalCancer
Volume127
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Keywords

  • Mediterranean diet score
  • progression
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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