In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the impact of age on the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) at our institution. A total of 1128 patients were divided into the older (>70 years; 182 [16%]) and the younger (≤70 years; 946 [84%]) groups. Compared with the younger cohort, older patients had a higher International Staging System (ISS) stage (ISS-II, 57 [31%] versus 215 [23%]; ISS-III, 52 [28%] versus 211 [22%]; P = .01), higher use of reduced-dose melphalan as a conditioning regimen (140 mg/m², 59 [32%] versus 29 [3%]; P < .001), and a higher comorbidity index (median, 3 versus 2; P = .01). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year after auto-HCT was significantly higher in older patients (7 [4%] versus 9 [1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; P = .005). Complete remission rates after auto-HCT for the older and the younger groups were 41% and 46%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 32%) and 37% (95% CI, 33% to 40%) in the older and younger groups, respectively (HR, 1.3; P = .02). Five-year OS for the older and younger groups was 56% (95% CI, 47% to 64%) and 73% (95% CI, 70% to 76%; P < .001), respectively. Older age emerged as one of the predictors of shorter OS but not PFS in the multivariate classification and regression tree analysis. In conclusion, age ≥70 years was associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an auto-HCT.
- Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Multiple myeloma
- Retrospective analysis
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