Antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai ethanol extract and related phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63

Jing Ru Weng, Chen Sheng Lin, Hsueh Chou Lai, Yu Ping Lin, Ching Ying Wang, Yu Chi Tsai, Kun Chang Wu, Su Hua Huang, Cheng Wen Lin

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Abstract

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), one of the main circulating HCoVs worldwide, causes respiratory tract illnesses like runny nose, cough, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Recently, a severe respiratory illness outbreak of HCoV-NL63 has been reported in a long-term care facility. Sambucus FormosanaNakai, a species of elderberry, is a traditional medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential. The study investigated the antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai stem ethanol extract and some phenolic acid constituents against HCoV-NL63. The extract was less cytotoxic and concentration-dependently increased anti-HCoV-NL63 activities, including cytopathicity, sub-G1 fraction, virus yield (IC50 = 1.17 μg/ml), plaque formation (IC50 = 4.67 μg/ml) and virus attachment (IC50 = 15.75 μg/ml). Among the phenolic acid constituents in Sambucus FormosanaNakai extract, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid sustained the anti-HCoV-NL63 activity that was ranked in the following order of virus yield reduction: caffeic acid (IC50 = 3.54 μM) > chlorogenic acid (IC50 = 43.45 μM) > coumaric acid (IC50 = 71.48 μM). Caffeic acid significantly inhibited the replication of HCoV-NL63 in a cell-type independent manner, and specifically blocked virus attachment (IC50 = 8.1 μM). Therefore, the results revealed that Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract displayed the strong anti-HCoV-NL63 potential; caffeic acid could be the vital component with anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. The finding could be helpful for developing antivirals against HCoV-NL63.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number197767
JournalVirus Research
Volume273
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019

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Keywords

  • Antiviral
  • Attachment inhibition
  • Caffeic acid
  • Human coronavirus NL63
  • Sambucus FormosanaNakai
  • Virus yield

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Weng, J. R., Lin, C. S., Lai, H. C., Lin, Y. P., Wang, C. Y., Tsai, Y. C., Wu, K. C., Huang, S. H., & Lin, C. W. (2019). Antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai ethanol extract and related phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63. Virus Research, 273, [197767]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197767