Association between glucose variation and lower extremity amputation incidence in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide retrospective cohort study

Chia Ing Li, Hui Man Cheng, Chiu Shong Liu, Chih Hsueh Lin, Wen Yuan Lin, Mu Cyun Wang, Shing Yu Yang, Tsai Chung Li, Cheng Chieh Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: Elevated glucose level is one of the risk factors for lower extremity amputation (LEA), but whether glycaemic variability confers independent risks of LEA remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the association between visit-to-visit glycaemic variability and minor and major LEA risks during 8 years of follow-up in type 2 diabetic individuals aged 50 years and older. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 27,574 ethnic Chinese type 2 diabetic individuals aged ≥50 years from the National Diabetes Care Management Program in Taiwan. Glycaemic variability measures were presented as the CVs of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-CV) and of HbA1c (A1c-CV). The effect of glycaemic variability on the incidence of LEA events was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: After a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 541 incident cases of LEA with a crude incidence density rate of 2.4 per 1000 person-years were observed. After multivariate adjustment, FPG-CV and A1c-CV were found to be significantly associated with minor LEA, with corresponding HRs of 1.53 (95% CI 1.15, 2.04) and 1.34 (95% CI 1.02, 1.77) for the third tertiles of FPG-CV and A1c-CV, respectively. In addition, these associations were stronger amongst older adults with longer diabetes duration (≥3 years) than amongst those with shorter duration (<3 years) (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions/interpretation: Our study suggests that visit-to-visit variations in HbA1c and FPG are important predictors of minor LEA amongst older adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those with more than 3 years of diabetes duration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-205
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetologia
Volume63
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

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Amputation
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Lower Extremity
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Glucose
Incidence
Social Adjustment
Taiwan
Proportional Hazards Models
Fasting

Keywords

  • Glycaemic variability
  • Lower extremity amputation
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Association between glucose variation and lower extremity amputation incidence in individuals with type 2 diabetes : a nationwide retrospective cohort study. / Li, Chia Ing; Cheng, Hui Man; Liu, Chiu Shong; Lin, Chih Hsueh; Lin, Wen Yuan; Wang, Mu Cyun; Yang, Shing Yu; Li, Tsai Chung; Lin, Cheng Chieh.

In: Diabetologia, Vol. 63, No. 1, 01.01.2020, p. 194-205.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Aims/hypothesis: Elevated glucose level is one of the risk factors for lower extremity amputation (LEA), but whether glycaemic variability confers independent risks of LEA remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the association between visit-to-visit glycaemic variability and minor and major LEA risks during 8 years of follow-up in type 2 diabetic individuals aged 50 years and older. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 27,574 ethnic Chinese type 2 diabetic individuals aged ≥50 years from the National Diabetes Care Management Program in Taiwan. Glycaemic variability measures were presented as the CVs of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-CV) and of HbA1c (A1c-CV). The effect of glycaemic variability on the incidence of LEA events was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: After a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 541 incident cases of LEA with a crude incidence density rate of 2.4 per 1000 person-years were observed. After multivariate adjustment, FPG-CV and A1c-CV were found to be significantly associated with minor LEA, with corresponding HRs of 1.53 (95{\%} CI 1.15, 2.04) and 1.34 (95{\%} CI 1.02, 1.77) for the third tertiles of FPG-CV and A1c-CV, respectively. In addition, these associations were stronger amongst older adults with longer diabetes duration (≥3 years) than amongst those with shorter duration (<3 years) (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions/interpretation: Our study suggests that visit-to-visit variations in HbA1c and FPG are important predictors of minor LEA amongst older adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those with more than 3 years of diabetes duration.",
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