Homologous recombination plays a key role in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and thereby significantly contributes to cellular tolerance to radiotherapy and some chemotherapy. DSB repair by homologous recombination is initiated by 5' to 3' strand resection (DSB resection), with nucleases generating the 3' single-strand DNA (3'ssDNA) at DSB sites. Genetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrate a two-step DSB resection, wherein CtIP and Mre11 nucleases carry out short-range DSB resection followed by longrange DSB resection done by Dna2 and Exo1 nucleases. Recent studies indicate that CtIP contributes to DSB resection through its non-catalytic role but not as a nuclease. However, it remains elusive how CtIP contributes to DSB resection. To explore the non-catalytic role, we examined the dynamics of Dna2 by developing an immuno-cytochemical method to detect ionizing-radiation (IR)-induced Dna2-subnuclear-focus formation at DSB sites in chicken DT40 and human cell lines. Ionizing-radiation induced Dna2 foci only in wild-type cells, but not in Dna2 depleted cells, with the number of foci reaching its maximum at 30 minutes and being hardly detectable at 120 minutes after IR. Induced foci were detectable in cells in the G2 phase but not in the G1 phase. These observations suggest that Dna2 foci represent the recruitment of Dna2 to DSB sites for DSB resection. Importantly, the depletion of CtIP inhibited the recruitment of Dna2 to DSB sites in both human cells and chicken DT40 cells. Likewise, a defect in breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), which physically interacts with CtIP and contributes to DSB resection, also inhibited the recruitment of Dna2. Moreover, CtIP physically associates with Dna2, and the association is enhanced by IR. We conclude that BRCA1 and CtIP contribute to DSB resection by recruiting Dna2 to damage sites, thus ensuring the robust DSB resection necessary for efficient homologous recombination.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)