Clinical stage i nonseminomatous and mixed germ cell tumors of the testis. A clinicopathologic study of 93 patients on a surveillance protocol after orchiectomy alone

Cherie H. Dunphy, Alberto G. Ayala, David A. Swanson, Jae Y. Ro, Christopher Logothetis

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76 Scopus citations


This study of 93 patients with Stage I nonseminomatous and mixed germ cell testicular tumors who were placed in a surveillance study following orchiectomy was designed to evaluate pathologic prognostic factors. Follow‐up was at least 12 months postorchiectomy except for one patient who was followed for 9 months. Lymphatic invasion was identified in 26 patients, 62% of whom developed distant metastases; metastasis developed in only 18% of 67 patients without lymphatic invasion (P < 0.01). Relapse was also associated with the presence of embryonal carcinoma. Of 81 patients with an embryonal carcinoma component, 35% developed metastases, whereas none of those without an embryonal carcinoma developed metastasis (P = 0.05). Effects of other histologic features and tumor size were not significant. Lymphatic invasion appeared to be a significant poor prognostic factor, and embryonal carcinoma was an independent poor prognostic factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1202-1206
Number of pages5
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 15 1988


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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