Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the imaging diagnostic performance of F-fluciclovine PET/CT and pelvic multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for prostate cancer in the setting of rising PSA after initial treatment, with a focus on detection of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer in the pelvis. Methods Patients with prostate cancer who had fluciclovine PET and pelvic mpMRI between October 2017 and October 2018 in our center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they had fluciclovine PET/CT and mpMRI within a 3-month interval. Patients were excluded if they had separate concurrent cancer or if the PSA were more than 2-fold difference with an absolute difference more than 1 ng/mL between the 2 image studies. For each eligible patient, we compared all abnormal lesions identified on either scan. The findings were verified by pathology or other imaging techniques within minimal 10-month clinical follow-up. Results A total of 129 patients with 129 paired tests were included in this study. Fluciclovine PET/CT and pelvic MRI had a high degree of concordance (121/129, 93.8%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for fluciclovine PET/CT and mpMRI were 96.6%, 94.3%, 93.4%, and 97%, and 91.5%, 95.7%, 94.7%, and 93%, respectively. There were no statistical significant differences in diagnostic performance between the 2 imaging tests. Among the 8/129 discordant cases, although fluciclovine PET/CT provided definitive diagnosis when mpMRI was equivocal due to paramagnetic artifacts from fiducial markers and detected normal-sized regional lymph nodes, mpMRI detected subcentimeter periurethral recurrence and clarified physiological urinary artifacts that was not appreciated on fluciclovine PET/CT. Conclusions Our single-center study demonstrated that fluciclovine PET/CT has similar diagnostic performance with pelvic mpMRI in detecting recurrent/metastatic prostate disease in the pelvis in the setting of rising PSA after initial treatment. Moreover, fluciclovine PET/CT and mpMRI have different implications in different clinical scenario; each test has its own limitation and pitfalls, but can be complementary to each other.
- fluciclovine PET/CT
- prostate cancer
- tumor recurrence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging