Current concepts of non-coding RNA regulation of immune checkpoints in cancer

Maria Anna Smolle, Felix Prinz, George Adrian Calin, Martin Pichler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

6 Scopus citations


The discovery of immune checkpoint molecules as important regulators of immune responses in healthy individuals as well as immune escape of malignant tumours has led to profound changes in understanding, research and treatment of human cancer. Especially the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy has set anti-cancer therapy on a novel level. With increasing experience of approved CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 inhibitors and the evolution of novel immune checkpoint molecules from pre-clinical models to clinical trials, mechanisms of the regulation of these immune system guiding factors, are of paramount importance to overcome mechanisms of resistance. Non-protein coding RNAs (i.e. non-coding RNAs) such as short microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are involved in regulating of various cellular processes and have attracted attention of cancer researchers and immunologists over the last years. In the present review, interactions between non coding RNAs and immune checkpoint molecules, within the framework of human cancer, will be discussed and current and developing concepts between the immunological and non-coding RNA world, will be elucidated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-126
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular Aspects of Medicine
StatePublished - Dec 2019


  • Cancer
  • Immune checkpoint molecule
  • Non-coding RNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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