Current knowledge on exosome biogenesis and release

Nina Pettersen Hessvik, Alicia Llorente

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

223 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles released by fusion of an organelle of the endocytic pathway, the multivesicular body, with the plasma membrane. This process was discovered more than 30 years ago, and during these years, exosomes have gone from being considered as cellular waste disposal to mediate a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. The exponential interest in exosomes experienced during recent years is due to their important roles in health and disease and to their potential clinical application in therapy and diagnosis. However, important aspects of the biology of exosomes remain unknown. To explore the use of exosomes in the clinic, it is essential that the basic molecular mechanisms behind the transport and function of these vesicles are better understood. We have here summarized what is presently known about how exosomes are formed and released by cells. Moreover, other cellular processes related to exosome biogenesis and release, such as autophagy and lysosomal exocytosis are presented. Finally, methodological aspects related to exosome release studies are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-208
Number of pages16
JournalCellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Volume75
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Exosomes
Multivesicular Bodies
Transport Vesicles
Autophagy
Exocytosis
Cell Communication
Organelles
Cell Membrane
Membranes
Health

Keywords

  • Autophagy
  • Endosomes
  • Exosomes
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Lysosomes
  • MVB biogenesis
  • MVBs
  • Microvesicles
  • Release
  • Secretion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Current knowledge on exosome biogenesis and release. / Hessvik, Nina Pettersen; Llorente, Alicia.

In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. 75, No. 2, 01.01.2018, p. 193-208.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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