Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of cell-free miRNAs in prostate cancer: A systematic review

Edgars Endzeliņš, Vita Melne, Zane Kalniņa, Vilnis Lietuvietis, Una Riekstiņa, Alicia Llorente, Aija Line

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prostate cancer, the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in males worldwide, is estimated to be diagnosed in 1.1 million men per year. Introduction of PSA testing substantially improved early detection of prostate cancer, however it also led to overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment of patients with an indolent disease. Treatment outcome and management of prostate cancer could be improved by the development of non-invasive biomarker assays that aid in increasing the sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer screening, help to distinguish aggressive from indolent disease and guide therapeutic decisions. Prostate cancer cells release miRNAs into the bloodstream, where they exist incorporated into ribonucleoprotein complexes or extracellular vesicles. Later, cell-free miRNAs have been found in various other biofluids. The initial RNA sequencing studies suggested that most of the circulating cell-free miRNAs in healthy individuals are derived from blood cells, while specific disease-associated miRNA signatures may appear in the circulation of patients affected with various diseases, including cancer. This raised a hope that cell-free miRNAs may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer. Indeed, a number of cell-free miRNAs that potentially may serve as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers have been discovered in blood or other biofluids of prostate cancer patients and need to be validated in appropriately designed longitudinal studies and clinical trials. In this review, we systematically summarise studies investigating cell-free miRNAs in biofluids of prostate cancer patients and discuss the utility of the identified biomarkers in various clinical scenarios. Furthermore, we discuss the possible mechanisms of miRNA release into biofluids and outline the biological questions and technical challenges that have arisen from these studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number41
JournalMolecular cancer
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 18 2016

Fingerprint

MicroRNAs
Prostatic Neoplasms
Biomarkers
Early Detection of Cancer
Hope
RNA Sequence Analysis
Ribonucleoproteins
Longitudinal Studies
Blood Cells
Neoplasms
Cell Count
Clinical Trials
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Cell-free miRNAs
  • Exosomes
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Liquid biopsy
  • Microvesicles
  • Overdiagnosis
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of cell-free miRNAs in prostate cancer : A systematic review. / Endzeliņš, Edgars; Melne, Vita; Kalniņa, Zane; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Riekstiņa, Una; Llorente, Alicia; Line, Aija.

In: Molecular cancer, Vol. 15, No. 1, 41, 18.05.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Endzeliņš, Edgars ; Melne, Vita ; Kalniņa, Zane ; Lietuvietis, Vilnis ; Riekstiņa, Una ; Llorente, Alicia ; Line, Aija. / Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of cell-free miRNAs in prostate cancer : A systematic review. In: Molecular cancer. 2016 ; Vol. 15, No. 1.
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