Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer related death in the United States. Men with clinical suspicion of PCa undergo tissue sampling and based on features including the Gleason score, Prostate Specific antigen (PSA) levels and clinical tumor (T) stage, patients are risk stratified into 6 major groups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. This forms the basis for deciding imaging and management. Active surveillance is the preferred approach for less aggressive tumors. Surgery or radiation +/− androgen deprivation therapy continue to be the primary treatment options for localized disease. Imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis, staging and management of PCa. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is currently the imaging modality of choice for locoregional staging. MRI, computed tomography and bone scan remain the preferred modalities for evaluation of nodal, soft tissue, and bone metastases, respectively. Advanced positron emission tomography imaging using novel radiotracers are being developed but are not yet integrated in the diagnostic guidelines for initial staging. In this review, we will discuss the imaging and treatment algorithms based on the NCCN risk groups, describe the utility of individual modalities, review Prosate Imaging and Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) version 2.1 for the reporting of mpMRI of the prostate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging