Mouse models can be useful for increasing the understanding of lung tumorigenesis and assessing the potential of chemopreventive agents. We explored the role of inflammation in lung tumor development in mice with knockout of the tumor suppressor Gprc5a. Examination of normal lung tissue and tumors from 51 Gprc5a+/+ (adenoma incidence, 9.8%; adenocarcinoma, 0%) and 38 Gprc5a-/- mice (adenomaa, 63%; adenocarcinoma, 21%) revealed macrophage infiltration into lungs of 45% of the Gprc5a-/- mice and 8% of Gprc5a+/+ mice and the direct association of macrophages with 42% of adenomas and 88% of adenocarcinomas in the knockout mice. Gprc5a -/- mouse lungs contained higher constitutive levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and were more sensitive than lungs of Gprc5a+/+ mice to stimulation of NF-κB activation by lipopolysaccharide in vivo. Studies with epithelial cells cultured from tracheas of Gprc5a-/- and Gprc5a+/+ mice revealed that Gprc5a loss is associated with increased cell proliferation, resistance to cell death in suspension, and increased basal, tumor necrosis factor α-induced, and lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, which were reversed partially in Gprc5a-/- adenocarcinoma cells by reexpression of Gprc5a. Compared with Gprc5a+/+ cells, the Gprc5a-/- cells produced higher levels of chemokines and cytokines and their conditioned medium induced more extensive macrophage migration. Silencing Gprc5a and the p65 subunit of NF-κB in Gprc5a+/+ and Gprc5a-/- cells, respectively, reversed these effects. Thus, Gprc5a loss enhances NF-κB activation in lung epithelial cells, leading to increased autocrine and paracrine interactions, cell autonomy, and enhanced inflammation, which may synergize in the creation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research