Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy with no embryo and cystic degeneration of placental villi. We report five mutations in the maternal gene NALP7 in individuals with familial and recurrent HMs. NALP7 is a member of the CATERPILLER protein family involved in inflammation and apoptosis. NALP7 is the first maternal effect gene identified in humans and is also responsible for recurrent spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and intrauterine growth retardation.
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