Next-generation sequencing has revealed cancer genomic landscapes, in which over 100 driver genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote oncogenesis. MYD88 is a driver gene found in hematologic B-cell malignancies. A missense mutation (L265P) changing leucine at position 265 to proline in MYD88 is found in 90% of Waldenstrom € macroglobulinemia (WM) cases and in significant portions of activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Few cancers such as WM have a single amino acid substitution in one gene like MYD88 L265P that occurs in 90% of cases, making WM paradigmatic for study of a single causative mutation in oncogenesis. In this review, we summarize the frequency and cancer spectrum of MYD88 L265P and its downstream effects in lymphoid cancers. Malignant B cells with MYD88 L265P are likely transformed from IgM-producing B cells either in response to T-cell–independent antigens or in response to protein antigens before class switching. We also discuss therapeutic strategies that include targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase and other kinases, interfering with the assembly of MYD88 and its interacting partners, and MYD88 L265P-specific peptide-based immunotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research