Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions

A. L. Fernström, W. Sutian, F. Royo, K. Westlund, T. Nilsson, H. E. Carlsson, Y. Paramastri, J. Pamungkas, D. Sajuthi, S. J. Schapiro, J. Hau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The stress associated with transportation of non-human primates used in scientific research is an important but almost unexplored part of laboratory animal husbandry. The procedures and routines concerning transport are not only important for the animals' physical health but also for their mental health as well. The transport stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 25 adult female cynomolgus monkeys were divided into five groups of five animals each that received different diets during the transport phase of the experiment. All animals were transported in conventional single animal transport cages with no visual or tactile contact with conspecifics. The animals were transported by lorry for 24 h at ambient temperatures ranging between 20°C and 35°C. Urine produced before, during and after transport was collected and analysed for cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All monkeys exhibited a significant increase in cortisol excretion per time unit during the transport and on the first day following transport. Although anecdotal reports concerning diet during transport, including the provision of fruits and/or a tranquiliser, was thought likely to influence stress responses, these were not corrobated by the present study. In Experiment 2, behavioural data were collected from 18 cynomolgus macaques before and after transfer from group cages to either single or pair housing, and also before and after a simulated transport, in which the animals were housed in transport cages. The single housed monkeys were confined to single transport cages and the pair housed monkeys were kept in their pairs in double size cages. Both pair housed and singly housed monkeys showed clear behavioural signs of stress soon after their transfer out of their group cages. However, stress-associated behaviours were more prevalent in singly housed animals than in pair housed animals, and these behaviours persisted for a longer time after the simulated transport housing event than in the pair housed monkeys. Our data confirm that the transport of cynomolgus monkeys is stressful and suggest that it would be beneficial for the cynomolgus monkeys to be housed and transported in compatible pairs from the time they leave their group cages at the source country breeding facility until they arrive at their final laboratory destination in the country of use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-476
Number of pages10
JournalStress
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 16 2008

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Macaca fascicularis
Haplorhini
Hydrocortisone
Animal Husbandry
Diet
Animal Behavior
Touch
Laboratory Animals
Macaca
Primates
Breeding
Fruit
Mental Health
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Urine
Temperature
Health
Research

Keywords

  • Behaviour
  • Macaque
  • Pair-housing
  • Primate
  • Urinary cortisol
  • Welfare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Fernström, A. L., Sutian, W., Royo, F., Westlund, K., Nilsson, T., Carlsson, H. E., ... Hau, J. (2008). Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions. Stress, 11(6), 467-476. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890801903359

Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions. / Fernström, A. L.; Sutian, W.; Royo, F.; Westlund, K.; Nilsson, T.; Carlsson, H. E.; Paramastri, Y.; Pamungkas, J.; Sajuthi, D.; Schapiro, S. J.; Hau, J.

In: Stress, Vol. 11, No. 6, 16.12.2008, p. 467-476.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fernström, AL, Sutian, W, Royo, F, Westlund, K, Nilsson, T, Carlsson, HE, Paramastri, Y, Pamungkas, J, Sajuthi, D, Schapiro, SJ & Hau, J 2008, 'Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions', Stress, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 467-476. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890801903359
Fernström, A. L. ; Sutian, W. ; Royo, F. ; Westlund, K. ; Nilsson, T. ; Carlsson, H. E. ; Paramastri, Y. ; Pamungkas, J. ; Sajuthi, D. ; Schapiro, S. J. ; Hau, J. / Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions. In: Stress. 2008 ; Vol. 11, No. 6. pp. 467-476.
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