Study of tumor markers in nipple discharge for early detection of breast carcinoma - I

Z. Jin, L. Shu-Ling

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    Between March 1991 and March 1995, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ferritin (FT) and calcitonin (CT) measurements in nipple discharge were made in 169 consecutive cases of breast diseases. The cut-off levels for positive CEA, FT and CT measurements were set up at 10 mg/ml, 500 ng/ml and 100 pg/ml respectively in the nipple discharge. The results revealed that the CEA was of high specificity as well as sensitivity. FT and CT were relatively low in sensitivity but a pretty high specificity. There were no significant improvement in the diagnosis with three markers combined. In comparison, immunoradiometric assay of tumor markers was superior to mammography in the diagnosis for early breast cancer.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)457-460
    Number of pages4
    JournalChinese Journal of Clinical Oncology
    Issue number7
    StatePublished - Jan 1 1996



    • Breast carcinoma
    • Early detection
    • Immunoradiometric assay
    • Nipple discharge
    • Tumor marker

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Oncology
    • Cancer Research

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