Sustained src inhibition results in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and cancer cell survival via altered jan us-Activated kinase-STAT3 binding

Banibrata Sen, Babita Salgai, Ni Ia Parikh, Gary Gallick, Faye M. Johnson

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86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Locoregional and distant recurrence remains common and usually fatal for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One promising molecular target in HNSCC is the Src family kinases (SFK). SFKs can affect cellular proliferation and survival by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, especially STAT3. Surprisingly, sus-tained SFK inhibition resulted in only transient inhibition of STAT3. We investigated the mechanism underlying STAT3 activation and its biological importance. Specific c-Src knockdown with small interfering BNA (siBNA) resulted in STAT3 activation showing specificity, which was inhibited by Janus-activated kinase (JAK; TYK2 and JAK2) depletion with siBNA. Sustained SFK inhibition also resulted in recovered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity after an initial reduction, although JAK phosphorylation paradoxically de-creased. To determine the biological significance of STAT3 activation, we combined specific STAT3 depletion with a pharmacologic SFK inhibitor and observed increased cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, the addition of STAT3-or JAK-specific siRNA to c-Src-depleted cells enhanced cytotox-icity relative to cells incubated with c-Src siRNA alone. These results show that reactivation of STAT3 after sustained, specific c-Src inhibition is mediated through altered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity and that this compensatory pathway allows for cancer cell survival and proliferation despite durable c-Src inhibition. To our knowl-edge, this novel feedback pathway has never been described previously. Given that pharmacologic SFK inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, these results have potential clinical implications for cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1958-1965
Number of pages8
JournalCancer research
Volume69
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

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STAT3 Transcription Factor
Transcriptional Activation
Cell Survival
Phosphotransferases
src-Family Kinases
Neoplasms
Janus Kinases
Small Interfering RNA
Cell Proliferation
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Transducers
Transcription Factors
Phosphorylation
Clinical Trials
Apoptosis
Recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

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title = "Sustained src inhibition results in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and cancer cell survival via altered jan us-Activated kinase-STAT3 binding",
abstract = "Locoregional and distant recurrence remains common and usually fatal for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One promising molecular target in HNSCC is the Src family kinases (SFK). SFKs can affect cellular proliferation and survival by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, especially STAT3. Surprisingly, sus-tained SFK inhibition resulted in only transient inhibition of STAT3. We investigated the mechanism underlying STAT3 activation and its biological importance. Specific c-Src knockdown with small interfering BNA (siBNA) resulted in STAT3 activation showing specificity, which was inhibited by Janus-activated kinase (JAK; TYK2 and JAK2) depletion with siBNA. Sustained SFK inhibition also resulted in recovered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity after an initial reduction, although JAK phosphorylation paradoxically de-creased. To determine the biological significance of STAT3 activation, we combined specific STAT3 depletion with a pharmacologic SFK inhibitor and observed increased cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, the addition of STAT3-or JAK-specific siRNA to c-Src-depleted cells enhanced cytotox-icity relative to cells incubated with c-Src siRNA alone. These results show that reactivation of STAT3 after sustained, specific c-Src inhibition is mediated through altered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity and that this compensatory pathway allows for cancer cell survival and proliferation despite durable c-Src inhibition. To our knowl-edge, this novel feedback pathway has never been described previously. Given that pharmacologic SFK inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, these results have potential clinical implications for cancer therapy.",
author = "Banibrata Sen and Babita Salgai and Parikh, {Ni Ia} and Gary Gallick and Johnson, {Faye M.}",
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T1 - Sustained src inhibition results in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and cancer cell survival via altered jan us-Activated kinase-STAT3 binding

AU - Sen, Banibrata

AU - Salgai, Babita

AU - Parikh, Ni Ia

AU - Gallick, Gary

AU - Johnson, Faye M.

PY - 2009/3/1

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N2 - Locoregional and distant recurrence remains common and usually fatal for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One promising molecular target in HNSCC is the Src family kinases (SFK). SFKs can affect cellular proliferation and survival by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, especially STAT3. Surprisingly, sus-tained SFK inhibition resulted in only transient inhibition of STAT3. We investigated the mechanism underlying STAT3 activation and its biological importance. Specific c-Src knockdown with small interfering BNA (siBNA) resulted in STAT3 activation showing specificity, which was inhibited by Janus-activated kinase (JAK; TYK2 and JAK2) depletion with siBNA. Sustained SFK inhibition also resulted in recovered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity after an initial reduction, although JAK phosphorylation paradoxically de-creased. To determine the biological significance of STAT3 activation, we combined specific STAT3 depletion with a pharmacologic SFK inhibitor and observed increased cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, the addition of STAT3-or JAK-specific siRNA to c-Src-depleted cells enhanced cytotox-icity relative to cells incubated with c-Src siRNA alone. These results show that reactivation of STAT3 after sustained, specific c-Src inhibition is mediated through altered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity and that this compensatory pathway allows for cancer cell survival and proliferation despite durable c-Src inhibition. To our knowl-edge, this novel feedback pathway has never been described previously. Given that pharmacologic SFK inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, these results have potential clinical implications for cancer therapy.

AB - Locoregional and distant recurrence remains common and usually fatal for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One promising molecular target in HNSCC is the Src family kinases (SFK). SFKs can affect cellular proliferation and survival by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, especially STAT3. Surprisingly, sus-tained SFK inhibition resulted in only transient inhibition of STAT3. We investigated the mechanism underlying STAT3 activation and its biological importance. Specific c-Src knockdown with small interfering BNA (siBNA) resulted in STAT3 activation showing specificity, which was inhibited by Janus-activated kinase (JAK; TYK2 and JAK2) depletion with siBNA. Sustained SFK inhibition also resulted in recovered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity after an initial reduction, although JAK phosphorylation paradoxically de-creased. To determine the biological significance of STAT3 activation, we combined specific STAT3 depletion with a pharmacologic SFK inhibitor and observed increased cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Likewise, the addition of STAT3-or JAK-specific siRNA to c-Src-depleted cells enhanced cytotox-icity relative to cells incubated with c-Src siRNA alone. These results show that reactivation of STAT3 after sustained, specific c-Src inhibition is mediated through altered JAK-STAT3 binding and JAK kinase activity and that this compensatory pathway allows for cancer cell survival and proliferation despite durable c-Src inhibition. To our knowl-edge, this novel feedback pathway has never been described previously. Given that pharmacologic SFK inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, these results have potential clinical implications for cancer therapy.

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