Purpose: To investigate from a population health perspective the effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation on recurrent variceal bleeding and survival in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with cirrhosis who presented to outpatient and acute-care hospitals in California (2005–2011) and Florida (2005–2014) with variceal bleeding comprised the study cohort. Patients entered the study cohort at their first presentation for variceal bleeding; all subsequent hospital encounters were then evaluated to determine subsequent interventions, complications, and mortality data. Results: A total of 655,577 patients with cirrhosis were identified, of whom 42,708 (6.5%) had at least 1 episode of variceal bleeding and comprised the study cohort. The median follow-up time was 2.61 years. A TIPS was created in 4,201 (9.8%) of these patients. There were significantly greater incidences of coagulopathy (83.9% vs 72.8%; P < .001), diabetes (45.5% vs 38.8%; P < .001), and hepatorenal syndrome (15.3% vs 12.5%; P < .001) in TIPS recipients vs those without a TIPS. Following propensity-score matching, TIPS recipients were found to have improved overall survival (82% vs 77% at 12 mo; P < .001) and a lower rate of recurrent variceal bleeding (88% vs 83% recurrent bleeding–free survival at 12 months,; P < .001) than patients without a TIPS. Patients with a TIPS had a significant increase in encounters for hepatic encephalopathy vs those without (1.01 vs 0.49 per year; P < .001). Conclusions: TIPS improves recurrent variceal bleeding rates and survival in patients with cirrhosis complicated by variceal bleeding. However, TIPS creation is also associated with a significant increase in hepatic encephalopathy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine