Mucosal vaccines may be used both to prevent mucosal infections through the activation of antimicrobial immunity and to treat systemic inflammatory diseases through the induction of antigen-specific mucosal tolerance. New, efficient mucosal adjuvants for human use have been designed based on, amongst others, bacterial toxins and their derivatives, CpG-containing DNA, and different cytokines and chemokines, with the aim of improving the induction of mucosal Th1 and Th2 responses. Mucosal delivery systems, in particular virus-like particles, have been shown to enhance the binding, uptake and half-life of the antigens, as well as target the vaccine to mucosal surfaces. DNA vaccines are currently being developed for administration at mucosal surfaces. However, there have also been failures, such as the withdrawal of an oral vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea and a nasal vaccine against influenza, because of their potential side effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy