Anti–programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) therapy has greatly improved outcomes of patients with melanoma; however, many fail to respond. Although preclinical studies suggest a potentially synergistic relationship with anti-PD-1 therapy and certain concurrent medications, their clinical role remains unclear. Here, we retrospectively evaluated the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other drugs in 330 patients with melanoma treated with anti-PD-1 therapy from four academic centers. In the cohort, 37% of patients used NSAIDs including aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA; 47%), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (2%), and non-ASA/nonselective COX inhibitor NSAIDs (59%). The objective response rates (ORRs) were similar in patients with NSAID (43.4%) and no NSAID (41.3%) use with no significant difference in overall suvival (OS). There was a trend toward improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients who took NSAIDs (median PFS: 8.5 vs. 5.2 months; p =.054). Most patients (71.3%) took NSAIDs once daily or as needed. Multivariate analysis did not reveal an association with NSAID use with ORR, PFS, or OS. Concurrent use of metformin or beta blockers did not affect ORR, PFS, or OS. Our study found no conclusive association of concurrent NSAID or other medication use with improved outcomes in patients with melanoma treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Larger and more systematic analysis is required to confirm these findings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research